About Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) 

Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are conditions that can occur when the blood-forming cells in the bone marrow become abnormal. This leads to low numbers of one or more types of blood cells. MDS is considered a type of cancer.In about 1 in 3 patients, MDS can progress to a rapidly growing cancer of bone marrow cells called acute myeloid leukemia (AML). 

2 drugs for the Treatment of myelodysplasia can be ordered in Laos

Immunomodulating drugs (IMiDs)

Lenalidomide belongs to a class of drugs known as immunomodulating drugs (IMiDs). It seems to work well in low-grade MDS, often eliminating the need for blood transfusions, at least for a time. The drug seems to work best in people whose MDS cells are missing a part of chromosome 5 (MDS-del(5q)). But it can also help some MDS patients that do not have this abnormal chromosome


enalidomide is an analogue of thalidomide with immunomodulatory, antiangiogenic, and antineoplastic properties. Lenalidomide inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis of certain hematopoietic tumor cells including multiple myeloma, mantle cell lymphoma, and del (5q) myelodysplastic syndromes in vitro. Lenalidomide causes a delay in tumor growth in some in vivo nonclinical hematopoietic tumor models including multiple myeloma.

Drug ProfileImmunomodulatory properties of lenalidomide include activation of T cells and natural killer (NK) cells, increased numbers of NKT cells, and inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokines (e.g., TNF-alpha and IL-6) by monocytes.
Alternative NamesCMIO-LLD; STAR LLD programme; STAR-LLD; STAR-LLD SC
DeveloperStarton Therapeutics
Class2 ring heterocyclic compounds; Antineoplastics; Imides; Isoindoles; Piperidones; Small molecules
Mechanism of ActionJanus kinase 1 inhibitors; Janus kinase-2 inhibitors
Orphan Drug StatusAngiogenesis inhibitors; Apoptosis stimulants; Cell proliferation inhibitors; Immunomodulators; Interleukin 6 inhibitors; Tumour necrosis factor alpha inhibitors; Vascular endothelial growth factors inhibitors
Patent InformationThere are fifteen patents protecting this compound and three Paragraph IV challenges.

Platelet growth factors

Drugs called thrombopoietin-receptor agonists, such as romiplostim and eltrombopag might help some people with MDS who have very low platelet levels.


Eltrombopag, a thrombopoietin- receptor agonist in the treatment of adult chronic immune thrombocytopenia

Drug Profilean oral, nonpeptide thrombopoietin receptor agonist
Alternative Names497115; Eltrombopag olamine; ETB-115; Promacta; Reboredo; Revolade; SB-497115; SB-497115-GR
OriginatorLigand Pharmaceuticals
DeveloperFrench Innovative Leukemia Organisation; GlaxoSmithKline; Groupe Francophone des Myelodysplasies; Novartis; Technische Universitat Dresden
ClassAntianaemics; Antineoplastics; Benzoates; Biphenyl compounds; Carboxylic acids; Hydrazines; Pyrazoles; Radioprotectives; Small molecules
Mechanism of ActionThrombopoietin receptor agonists
Orphan Drug StatusYes – Aplastic anaemia; Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura
Patent InformationEltrombopag olamine is the generic ingredient in two branded drugs marketed by Novartis and is included in two NDAs. There are eight patents protecting this compound and two Paragraph IV challenges.

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The WTO’s Council for Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) :Under this license, the Lao pharmaceutical industry, as well as the pharmaceutical industry in similar countries(Bangladesh, Nepal, etc.), will be able to manufacture many drugs without patent authorization.

《WTO members agree to extend drug patent exemption for poorest members》
《Product Patent Protection,the TRIPS LDC Exemption and the Bangladesh Pharmaceutical Industry》

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